medicine and wellness, nutrition education and physical training, from 36 to 50 years
advice for health and well-being from 36 to 50 years
advice for healthy eating from 36 to 50 years
advice for physical activity from 36 to 50 years
Clinical examinations and instrumental examinations
People in this age group rarely go to be visited from their General Practitioner. Let me advise you to go, at least once a year, for a periodic check-up. Thanks to that, depending on your state of health, your General Practitioner may decide to prescribe you additional specialist visits and any clinical and instrumental checks that could be recommended in this age group:
control of body weight and blood pressure
gynecological examination, including pap test / HPV test and breast examination
I advise women in this age group to periodically perform breast self-examination, approximately every 3 months, a week after the period, when the breasts become less tense and painful. The goal of self-examination is the knowledge of one's own breasts (the right is often different from the left) to identify any changes over time. It is advisable that any sudden changes be communicated to your General Practitioner, especially if you are familiar with breast and / or ovarian cancers and even more so if you are young.
In this age group the Ministry of Health (Italy) suggests the following vaccinations:
- vaccine recall against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis every 10 years
- vaccine against measles mumps rubella (if susceptible subject, because it did not have even 1 of the 3 diseases or was not previously vaccinated with 2 doses)
- varicella vaccine (if susceptible, because it did not have the disease or was not previously vaccinated with 2 doses)
- HPV vaccine, if not previously performed
- seasonal flu vaccine in women during the II-III trimester of each pregnancy
- pertussis vaccine in women during the third trimester of each pregnancy (ideally around the 28th week)
According to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, we advise women in the age group between 36 and 50 to participate in screening programs for cervical cancer by adhering to the invitation that will be sent you by the ASP of the city you have your residence where.
The screening test to detect early cervical cancer is traditionally a pap-test, and should be repeated every three years.
The early diagnosis of breast cancer is also important in this age group. This type of tumor can occur even before the age of 40-45, but not so frequent as to justify the invitation to periodic instrumental control in the absence of symptoms. From the age of 45, while waiting to enter the usual target range of screening, even in the absence of an invitation to organized screening, it is advisable to go to the General Practitioner on an annual or biennial basis and undergo clinical-instrumental checks. The basic test is mammography, which is often appropriate to supplement with breast ultrasound.
I In this age group, to live well, in good health and prevent the onset of diseases, doing very little is enough: a varied and balanced diet and regular physical activity.
Nutrition and nutrition education
For a complete and balanced diet it is important to vary the diet as much as possible by increasing the consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, reducing the consumption of sugary foods and drinks and the use of salt. Excessive salt consumption is one of the recognized causes of arterial hypertension, with a consequent increase in the risk of developing serious cardiovascular diseases related to it, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, but is also associated with other chronic-degenerative diseases, such as tumors of the digestive system, particularly those of the stomach, osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease.
The decrease in salt consumption (but be careful not to eliminate it completely!) can be done gradually, to adapt the palate, either by reducing the added salt as a condiment for food (in salads, in pasta cooking water, etc. ), and above all !, reducing the consumption of foods with a high content of salt (salty snacks, potato chips in the bag, some meats and cheeses, canned foods), preferring spices, aromatic herbs, lemon juice or vinegar to flavor the foods.
An unbalanced diet in terms of the balance between fats, proteins and carbohydrates and with inadequate distribution of meals throughout the day promotes overweight and obesity, which increase the risk of chronic diseases. Therefore our advice is to never skip any meal, but to always find the way, during the days that are always so hectic, to consume meals regularly and, if possible, with a minimum of tranquillity.
Preventive and therapeutic physical training
An active life is the best way to prevent many diseases. A specific activity can be useful, as well as pleasant, but it is not essential. So no apology and let's start keeping active taking advantage of every opportunity: moving on foot or by bicycle, preferring the use of stairs to the elevator, parking the car a little further away from our final destination.
Making movement every day reduces the risk of getting sick, improves psychological well-being and positively affects social relationships.
To stay in good health, in this age group, it would really be enough to perform a moderate, sporty or daily physical activity, such as walking at a brisk pace, taking the stairs on foot that can be real life habits, and therefore they can be extended more easily over time.
At this, when possible, we recommend combining the practice of activities or sports that increase stamina, muscle power and joint flexibility, at least twice a week.
The current recommendations recommend taking at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic physical activity during the week or a minimum of 75 minutes of vigorous activity plus strengthening exercises for major muscle groups 2 or more times a week.
The practice of physical activity in quantities greater than the minimum recommended, certainly brings additional health benefits and contributes more effectively to reducing the risk for various chronic diseases (cardiovascular and metabolic) and is strongly recommended especially for those who struggle to keep their body weight.
Let us remember, then, to frequently interrupt the periods in which we are in a sitting or reclining position, ideally at least every 30 minutes, with even brief periods, of 2-3 minutes in which we perform other activities (active pauses), because, unfortunately, the deleterious effects of hours spent in a sedentary lifestyle are independent of physical activity practiced in leisure time.
Paola Micale 2019 - Contacts